But this just makes it looks like the case is suboptimal after all, since there is a massive asymmetry in their epistemic positions. It's part of the job of being a philosopher that this intellectual task is left to the epistemic efforts of oneself, no matter how inefficient and arduous that might be. Perhaps a goal of philosophy is to gain understanding of why the view one believes is true: Now, I do not think the understanding goal plausibly places any practical prohibitions on the uptake of philosophical testimony as such. In such a case, intuitively, it would be unreasonable for you to trust the joint testimony of Goldman and Goldberg. This is entirely consistent with it being intellectually vicious for your belief‐forming policy to be one of only relying on the word of other philosophers. However, [t]he expert must be an expert in the precise problem as to which he undertakes to testify.” 65 One way of arguing is that the hearer should be hesitant to believe that a philosophical view p is true only by testimony because of their awareness of the disagreement amongst epistemic peers over p. For example, imagine epistemologists disagree over whether reliability is necessary for justification, but Alvin Goldman and Sanford Goldberg—two prominent reliabilists—confidently testify that it's necessary for justification. In Section 4, I consider whether peer disagreement in philosophy supports pessimism without thereby supporting philosophical skepticism generally.10 I argue that it does not. B plausibly violates the philosophical grounds norm. On the one hand, science and history are not straightforward and undemanding areas of inquiry. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. You thereby update your belief, and plan to listen in later to know why this is. The expert begins by showing a “raw” association between the putative cause and the The pessimist should argue that philosophical knowledge cannot be transmitted even in the best cases.15 The reason is that it's not enough to argue that there are contingent obstacles within contemporary philosophy which prevent the transmission of philosophical knowledge, or that there are some academic norms in play which contingently prohibit believing philosophical views on the basis of testimony. (Southern District of Florida, 18-CV-62593), Vineyard Vines, LLC v. Dazzle Up, LLC (Western District of North Carolina, 3:18-CV-98), American Dairy Queen Corp. v. Universal Investment Corp. (Western District of Wisconsin, 16-CV-323), Cue, Inc. v. General Motors LLC (District of Massachusetts, 1:13-CV-12647), Dazzle Up, LLC v. LML Investments, LLC (Middle District North Carolina, 1:13-CV-381). Part of valuing the intellectual virtues of one's peers and superiors is not just valuing them for themselves, but in being intellectual open to the fruits of their philosophical endeavors and how they bear on your own. My focus on academic research may prompt a question: Why do I serve. Dr. Roger Harris, a forensic psychiatrist, concluded that Mr. King had narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders with borderline personality traits, making him predisposed to false confessions. For example, you might think that if S has strong doubts about P, then this might make it difficult to see how H could come to know that P on the basis of S's testimony (because it makes it looks like the speaker does not justifiably believe or know that P either). For the free‐rider does little or nothing, reaps the same benefits as those who do a lot, and in so doing takes away part of the benefit from those who did a lot to produce that benefit. So it's hard to see how peer disagreement is not going to end up being a general defeater for philosophical justification and thereby knowledge, rather than only testimonial‐based philosophical knowledge.28. I am not that kind of expert witness. Sentencing, Science, & Philosophy: Philosophical Issues in the Use of Expert Testimony During Federal Sentencing. In particular, I examine the case for pessimism about philosophical testimony—the thesis that philosophical belief on the basis of testimony is impossible or is in some way illegitimate—and I argue that it lacks adequate support. However, he was born with an ailment in which he cannot register disagreements. In free‐riding cases, one person reaps the benefits of the people who do all of the work without doing any themselves. And you could just as easily have received one group's testimony rather than the other. Best case of the testimony be honest right, there are, although she does not eliminate the of. 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