The DLSM can then be used to visualize terrain, drape remote sensing images, quantify ecological properties of a surface or extract land surface objects. In areas where there has been an extensive direct survey and mapping program (most of Europe and the Continental U.S., for example), the compiled data forms the basis of basic digital elevation datasets such as USGS DEM data. Topological relationships between geometric entities traditionally include adjacency (what adjoins what), containment (what encloses what), and proximity (how close something is to something else). The latter is concerned with underlying structures and processes to the surface, rather than with identifiable surface features. In the 20th century, the term topography started to be used to describe surface description in other fields where mapping in a broader sense is used, particularly in medical fields such as neurology. Topography definition: Topography is the study and description of the physical features of an area, for example ... it becomes clear that the complexity of the animal's behaviour is forced upon it by the complex geography and topography of the beach. Identifying (naming) features, and recognizing typical landform patterns are also part of the field. Other articles where Topography is discussed: continental landform: Basic concepts and considerations: …that implies progressive changes in topography from an initial designated morphology toward or to some altered form. Dictionary: Definition of topography. The study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life and the effects of human activity. It is an important part of earth science.. Kids learn about the Earth science subject of topography including features such as landforms, elevation, latitude, longitude, and topographical maps. the shape of an area of land, including its hills, valleys etc —topographer noun [ countable] —topographical /ˌtɒpəˈɡræfɪkəl $ ˌtɑː-, ˌtoʊ-/ adjective Examples from the Corpus topography • The Bible had always had a local topography in his imagination. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus (Physical Geography) the study or detailed description of the surface features of a region. ‘For a work of economic geography, there are few maps, and none of them is very detailed.’ Synonyms: chorography, geography, geomorphology… Find the right word. Topography means the description of shape.The word comes from Greek: τόπος "place" and γράφω "(I) write". This article is about the study of Earth's surface shape and features. Note that the contour data or any other sampled elevation datasets are not a DLSM. Another word for topography. Synonym: videokeratography See also: topography In geostatistics, land surface is commonly modelled as a combination of the two signals – the smooth (spatially correlated) and the rough (noise) signal. Similar techniques are applied in bathymetric surveys using sonar to determine the terrain of the ocean floor. An objective of topography is to determine the position of any feature or more generally any point in terms of both a horizontal coordinate system such as latitude, longitude, and altitude. determine a trajectory of overflight of the ground, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 14:23. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. Topography is a branch of planetary science which deals with the study of natural and artificial features of a place. [citation needed] The term "topographic surveys" appears to be American in origin. These were defined in 1984 by the National Council for Geographic Education and the Association of American Geographers to facilitate and organize the teaching of geography in the K … It’s closely related to geodesy and surveying which are concerned with accurately measuring the land surface. It includes the mountains, hills, creeks, and other bumps and lumps on a particular hunk of earth. Learn more. It may contain holes (due to cloud cover for example) or inconsistencies (due to the timing of specific image captures). The word comes from the Greek τόπος (topos, "place") and -γραφία (-graphia, "writing"). Most modern topographic mapping includes a large component of remotely sensed data in its compilation process. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Do you know these earlier meanings of words? 1 The study of the physical features of the earth and its atmosphere, and of human activity as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources, land use, and industries. 2. The design of the house had to be integrated into the site’s steep, Rein can add still more variables like wind and, Owing to an unlucky combination of nearby wildfires, wind currents, and, The wind direction shifts now from the northwest to the northeast, and the fire leaps into alignment with the, This is a matter of temperament as much as, Post the Definition of topography to Facebook, Share the Definition of topography on Twitter. As with field notes, remote sensing data (aerial and satellite photography, for example), is raw and uninterpreted. In the most applications in environmental sciences, land surface is represented and modelled using gridded models. Accessed 27 Jan. 2021. Test your vocabulary with our 10-question quiz! For example, topography refers to mountains, valleys, rivers or craters on the surface.The origin of topography comes from “topo” for “place” and “graphia” for “writing”. When you talk of the topography of the land, you refer to the landscape features like valleys, hills and mountains, rivers and lakes, or the coastline.Everything that describes the form of the landscape, is part of the topography. Surveying helps determine accurately the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them using leveling instruments such as theodolites, dumpy levels and clinometers. [4] In classical literature this refers to writing about a place or places, what is now largely called 'local history'. Known control points can be used to give these relative positions absolute values. In its contemporary definition, topographic mapping shows relief. The USGS calls maps based on topographic surveys, but without contours, "planimetric maps.". Topography combines top- with graph-, a root meaning "write" or "describe". False-color and non-visible spectra imaging can also help determine the lie of the land by delineating vegetation and other land-use information more clearly. The digital elevation model (DEM) is a raster-based digital dataset of the topography (hypsometry and/or bathymetry) of all or part of the Earth (or a telluric planet). In mathematics the concept of topography is used to indicate the patterns or general organization of features on a map or as a term referring to the pattern in which variables (or their values) are distributed in a space. In Britain and in Europe in general, the word topography is still sometimes used in its original sense.[5]. GAMES BROWSE THESAURUS WORD OF THE DAY WORDS AT PLAY. is concerned with the study of surface features of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects such as sun ( təˈpɒɡrəfɪ) n, pl -phies. This meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made topography synonymous with relief. Topography definition is - the art or practice of graphic delineation in detail usually on maps or charts of natural and man-made features of a place or region especially in … A variety of colors can be found on a map, each relating to different types of features. SINCE 1828. This data must often be "cleaned" to eliminate discrepancies between surveys, but it still forms a valuable set of information for large-scale analysis. phies. ‘The surface topography of the silicified microbe is controlled by the size and distribution of the opal-A spheres.’ ‘A computer, programmed with the patient's refraction and corneal topography, controls the laser beam to precisely remove corneal tissue.’ ‘They use a surface topography conducive to generating new bone growth.’ Topography is the study and description of the physical features of an area, for example its hills, valleys, or rivers, or the representation of these features on maps . Main Difference. topography in Geography topic. corneal topography: The use of a camera and a computer to make a three-dimensional map of the cornea of the eye, typically in preparation for surgery. A topographic (or topo) map not only shows the surface features of a region but also indicates the contours and approximate altitude of every location, by means of numerous curving lines, each indicating a single elevation. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in digital form (DEM). It is often considered to include the graphic representation of the landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, hypsometric tints, and relief shading. 2. countable noun [usually singular, with poss] The topography of a particular area is … 1. The main difference between Topography and Geography is that the Topography is a field of science and Geography is a science that studies the terrestrial surface, the societies that inhabit it and the territories, landscapes, places … Medical Dictionary: Definition of topography… In recent years, LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging), a remote sensing technique that uses a laser instead of radio waves, has increasingly been employed for complex mapping needs such as charting canopies and monitoring glaciers. Detailed military surveys in Britain (beginning in the late eighteenth century) were called Ordnance Surveys, and this term was used into the 20th century as generic for topographic surveys and maps. In tissue engineering, atomic force microscopy is used to map nanotopography. [6] The earliest scientific surveys in France were called the Cassini maps after the family who produced them over four generations. In particular, it lays the underlying foundation of a landscape. Topography: the physical features of a region as a whole. Digital Land Surface Models should not be confused with Digital Surface Models, which can be surfaces of the canopy, buildings and similar objects. These topological relationships allow complex spatial modelling and analysis to be performed. It can also include the surface of other planets, the moon, asteroids and meteors. topography definition: 1. the physical appearance of the natural features of an area of land, especially the shape of its…. Earth Science for Kids: Topography History Biography Geography Science Games See the full definition for topography in the English Language Learners Dictionary, Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for topography, Nglish: Translation of topography for Spanish Speakers, Britannica English: Translation of topography for Arabic Speakers. 3. It is also the description of such surface shapes and features. Work on one of the first topographic maps was begun in France by Giovanni Domenico Cassini, the great Italian astronomer. In this technique, the common points are identified on each image. Photogrammetry is a measurement technique for which the co-ordinates of the points in 3D of an object are determined by the measurements made in two photographic images (or more) taken starting from different positions, usually from different passes of an aerial photography flight. Many government and private publishers use the artwork (especially the contour lines) from existing topographic map sheets as the basis for their own specialized or updated topographic maps.[9]. These features typically include natural formations such as mountains, rivers, lakes, and valleys, forests, glaciers etc. Topography is a broad term used to describe the detailed study of the earth's surface. Remote sensing is a general term for geodata collection at a distance from the subject area. Topography is the study of shape and features on the surface of the Earth. This includes changes in the surface such as mountains and valleys as well as features such as rivers and roads. 2. Manmade features such as roads, dams, and cities may also be included. There are a variety of approaches to studying topography. The topography of an area could refer to the surface forms and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). phies 1. In ophthalmology, corneal topography is used as a technique for mapping the surface curvature of the cornea. Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Terrain " is a similar concept, used more to describe the land itself than the study of it. Besides their role in photogrammetry, aerial and satellite imagery can be used to identify and delineate terrain features and more general land-cover features. It is the intersection of its rays (triangulation) which determines the relative three-dimensional position of the point. While not officially "topographic" maps, the national surveys of other nations share many of the same features, and so they are often called "topographic maps. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there, and how they develop and change over time. topography meaning: 1. the physical appearance of the natural features of an area of land, especially the shape of its…. that the map represents a complete surface. (Physical Geography) the detailed mapping of the configuration of a region. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! It includes the study of these features on any of the land like the Earth, the moon, an asteroid, or on a distant planet. Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. 3. Topography, a term in geography, has come to refer to the "lie of the land", or the geographic characteristics of land in terms of elevation, slope, and orientation. " Topography is a field of planetary science comprising the study of surface shape and features of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids. Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids. (Physical Geography) the land forms or surface configuration of a region. Images can be in visible colours and in other spectrum. The topography of an area can also mean the surface shape and features themselves. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). DEMs may be derived from existing paper maps and survey data, or they may be generated from new satellite or other remotely sensed radar or sonar data. Topographic map definition: What do the colors mean? A line of sight (or ray) can be built from the camera location to the point on the object. Discussion of an area’s geography usually refers to its topography—its relief and drainage patterns and predominant vegetation, along with climate and weather patterns—together with human responses to that environment, as in agricultural, industrial, and other land uses and in … A geographic information system (GIS) can recognize and analyze the spatial relationships that exist within digitally stored spatial data. Topo maps are commonly used by hikers, surveyors, government workers, and engineers, among other people. In the United States, USGS topographic maps show relief using contour lines. Slippery Words Quiz—Changing with the Times. Learn a new word every day. The physical characteristics, especially the surface features, of an area. In practice, surveyors first sample heights in an area, then use these to produce a Digital Land Surface Model in the form of a TIN. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? Topographic survey information is historically based upon the notes of surveyors. The pixels of the dataset are each assigned an elevation value, and a header portion of the dataset defines the area of coverage, the units each pixel covers, and the units of elevation (and the zero-point). While of historical interest, these field notes inherently include errors and contradictions that later stages in map production resolve. ", Existing topographic survey maps, because of their comprehensive and encyclopedic coverage, form the basis for much derived topographic work. The five themes of geography are location, place, human-environment interaction, movement, and region. In human anatomy, topography is superficial human anatomy. the detailed description, especially by means of surveying, of particular localities, as … (noun) This handy word is a Greek-rooted combo of topos meaning "place" and graphein "to write." The topography of an area could refer to the surface forms and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). For example, in the case of surface models produces using the lidar technology, one can have several surfaces – starting from the top of the canopy to the actual solid earth. What made you want to look up topography? Satellite RADAR mapping is one of the major techniques of generating Digital Elevation Models (see below). A topographic study may be made for a variety of reasons: military planning and geological exploration have been primary motivators to start survey programs, but detailed information about terrain and surface features is essential for the planning and construction of any major civil engineering, public works, or reclamation projects. [1][2][3], The term topography originated in ancient Greece and continued in ancient Rome, as the detailed description of a place. In neuroscience, the neuroimaging discipline uses techniques such as EEG topography for brain mapping. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Topographic mapping should not be confused with geologic mapping. reconstitute a sight in synthesized images of the ground. The original American topographic surveys (or the British "Ordnance" surveys) involved not only recording of relief, but identification of landmark features and vegetative land cover. Topography has been applied to different science fields. Topography is a detailed map of the surface features of land. A topographic map shows how the ground is shaped and provides a way to calculate the height of the features on the map. [8] After the work of national mapping was assumed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1878, the term topographical remained as a general term for detailed surveys and mapping programs, and has been adopted by most other nations as standard. For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see, Definition from WordNet Search – princeton.edu, Definition from Federal Citizen Information Center – pueblo.gsa.gov, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Topographical Engineers – History and Personnel, National Geographic Trails Illustrated Maps, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Topography&oldid=997844167, Articles needing additional references from January 2021, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. And it’s also closely tied to geography and mapping systems like GIS. Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. 4. They may derive naming and cultural information from other local sources (for example, boundary delineation may be derived from local cadastral mapping). In civil engineering and entertainment businesses, the most representations of land surface employ some variant of TIN models. The difference between the two surface models can then be used to derive volumetric measures (height of trees etc.). Digital Elevation Models, for example, have often been created not from new remote sensing data but from existing paper topographic maps. In other words, it shows a "three-dimensional" picture on a two-dimensional surface. Certainly they have become more and more a part of geovisualization, whether maps or GIS systems. Human Geography. Topography is the study of the land surface. Learn more. Physical geography is the study of Earth’s seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms, and oceans. The earliest detailed surveys in the United States were made by the “Topographical Bureau of the Army,” formed during the War of 1812,[7] which became the Corps of Topographical Engineers in 1838. Michael Paterniti Kiese Makeba Laymon Carina Del Valle Schorske Dessa Irina Aleksander Sam Dolnick Mark Binelli Maggie Jones Rob Hoerburger Jamie Lauren Keiles Devin Gordon Jazmine Hughes Jenna Wortham Jade Chang Taffy Brodesser-akner Kaitlyn Greenidge Reginald Dwayne Betts Rowan Ricardo Phillips Wesley Morris Ismail Muhammad Anthony Giardina, We Added New Words to the Dictionary for January 2021. the detailed mapping or charting of the features of a relatively small area, district, or locality. The topography of the Sahara Desert features shifting sand dunes and dry, rocky mountains. Applying a geographic perspective demonstrates geography’s concern not just with where things are, but with “the why of where”—a short, but useful definition of geography’s central focus. “Topography.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/topography. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information on the scene known a priori (for example, symmetries in certain cases allowing the rebuilding of three-dimensional co-ordinates starting from one only position of the camera). Even though remote sensing has greatly sped up the process of gathering information, and has allowed greater accuracy control over long distances, the direct survey still provides the basic control points and framework for all topographic work, whether manual or GIS-based. The insights that have come from geographic research show … Which method(s) to use depends on the scale and size of the area under study, its accessibility, and the quality of existing surveys. What does topography mean? Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms. Physical Geography. A book on geography. Terrain is commonly modelled either using vector (triangulated irregular network or TIN) or gridded (Raster image) mathematical models. A DLSM implies that elevation is available continuously at each location in the study area, i.e. A detailed graphic representation of the surface features of a place or object. Delivered to your inbox! topography. 15th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a, Middle English topographie, from Late Latin topographia, from Greek, from topographein to describe a place, from topos place + graphein to write — more at carve. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'topography.' Black shows cultural features such as buildings, railways, and power transmission lines. Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary science and is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief, but also natural and artificial features, and even local history and culture. This is also known as geomorphometry. It is also used to show geographical names (toponymy), certain symbols, geographic coordinates, and precise elevations. Find more ways to say topography, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. Send us feedback. These maps show not only the contours, but also any significant streams or other bodies of water, forest cover, built-up areas or individual buildings (depending on scale), and other features and points of interest. It takes account of the factors like relative positions and elevations related to a particular landscape. topography. To calculate the height of the features of a region of the natural of! And cities may also be included discipline uses techniques such as EEG topography for mapping... To map nanotopography topographic mapping shows relief of TIN models detailed study of surface features of an area can help... 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